It follows a successful test phase of the service due to finish on December 23, state news agency Wam reported.
People can book the service through the smartphone application, Txai, which is available on the Apple store or Google Play.
Trips were free during the trial phase, The company has yet to reveal pricing during future phases.
The top speed of the taxis was set at 90 kilometres an hour during the trial, but the cars typically do not go above 65 kph. A safety officer who sits in the driver's seat is there to intervene only if there is a problem.
Hassan Al Hosani, chief executive of Bayanat, which runs the service, said residents can reserve rides as soon as they download the application by following the instructions that appear on screen. They have to be in one of nine locations on Yas Island to book a trip.
Future operations include increasing passenger operations in different areas around Abu Dhabi. The fleet is composed entirely of electric and hybrid cars.
More details about the service can be found on the app.